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Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

Age-related macular degeneration, also known as AMD, is a leading cause of irreversible visual impairment and blindness in older persons. At the back of the eye is a light-sensing nerve tissue called the retina. AMD affects the central part of the retina, called the macula.

Early AMD

In early AMD, there are yellow deposits called drusen on the macula and you may not have noticeable or significant symptoms.

Late AMD

In the later stages of AMD, the central vision is affected. A person who has late AMD may have difficulty seeing fine details; there may be shadows or blurred spots in the central vision and straight lines may look wavy. Losing your central vision can make it difficult to recognise faces, read fine print, drive, watch television or do close-up work like sewing or drawing.

There are two types of late AMD: dry AMD and wet AMD. 

In late dry AMD, the cells in the macula get thinner and degenerate.

In late wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels grow under the macula, which leaks blood and fluid. This causes swelling and damage to the macula, which can rapidly blur and distort the vision. If left untreated, this eventually becomes a scar resulting in permanent loss of central vision. So it is important to see an eye doctor once you notice any blurring or distortion of your central vision before it is too late.

Risk Factors for AMD

The risk of developing AMD increases with:

  • Age: People over the age of 60 years are more likely to have AMD.
  • Family history of AMD
  • Female gender
  • Smoking
  • Caucasian ethnicity (though other races suffer from AMD as well)
  • Prolonged sun exposure

How to Reduce Your Risk of AMD

  • Do not smoke, or quit smoking if you already do
  • Wear sunglasses with UV protection
  • Eat a well-balanced diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins, and low in saturated fat
  • Maintain a healthy weight with regular exercise
  • Work with your doctor to control high blood pressure and high cholesterol
Book about Macular degeneration and medication

Early AMD

While there is currently no treatment for early AMD, a healthy lifestyle can help keep your eyes healthy. 

Intermediate AMD

Studies have shown that the Age-Related Eye Disease Study-2 (AREDS-2) supplements can slow vision loss.

  • AREDS-2 Supplements: 
    • Vitamin C 500mg
    • Vitamin E 400 IU
    • Zinc 80 mg
    • Copper 2 mg
    • Lutein 10 mg
    • Zeaxanthin 2mg

Late AMD 

Most patients require multiple and regular injections, and it is important not to skip any. Without regular treatment, wet AMD can deteriorate rapidly and be more difficult to treat. Laser procedures, such as photodynamic therapy, can also be used to treat wet AMD but are less commonly used. 

If you have vision loss from AMD, low vision aids can help you manage daily activities. Support from family, friends, counsellors, and support groups will help you stay positive.

Regular Eye Examinations

Get regular eye examinations, especially if you have risk factors of AMD or if you notice changes in your vision. Early detection and treatment can prevent further vision loss from AMD.

Contact us

Schedule an appointment if you have any questions

    Dr Chelvin Sng of Chelvin Sng eye center

    Dr Chelvin Sng

    Adjunct Associate Professor
    Senior Consultant Ophthalmologist
    ✓ 4 Gold Medals (Specialist Accreditation Examination)
    ✓ "Top 50 Rising Stars” (2017), “Top 100 Female Ophthalmologists” (2021)
    and "Top 100 Ophthalmologists" (2022)
    ⋆ Global Ophthalmologist Power List (voted by peers worldwide)
    ✓ Cambridge University Graduate with Triple First Class Honours and Distinctions


    38 Irrawaddy Road Mt Elizabeth Novena Specialist Centre, #06-25, Singapore 329563

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